Implications of Multilayer Protocols
TCP/IP consists of dozens of individual protocols spread across various protocol stack layers, and in fact, is a multilayer protocol. This feature gives TCP/IP significant advantages:
Benefits of Multilayer Protocols:
- Encryption can be integrated at various layers.
- A wide range of protocols can be used at higher layers.
- Supports flexibility and resiliency in complex network structures.
At the same time, it’s not without Drawback. Disadvantages include the following:
- Covert channels are allowed.
- Filters can be bypassed.
- Logically imposed network segment boundaries can be overstepped.
In fact, they are the integration of specialty or proprietary protocols with standard protocols, such as those from the TCP/IP suite.
The primary benefit of converged protocols is the ability to use existing TCP/IP supporting network infrastructure to host special or proprietary services without the alternate requirement of
Networking hardware. These protocols provide reduce costs.
Some common examples of converged protocols are described as follows:
- Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE): Fibre Channel is a form of network data-storage solution (like NAS and SAN) that allows for high-speed file transfers up to 16 Gbps speed. It was designed to be operated only over fibre-optic cables, but later support for copper cables was added.FCoE can be used to support Fibre Channel over the existing network infrastructure. Today, FCoE is used to encapsulate Fibre Channel communications over Ethernet networks With the emergence of this technology, Fibre Channel operates as a Network layer replacing IP as the payload of a standard Ethernet network.
- Internet Small Computer System Interface (iSCSI): It is a networking storage standard based on IP, and considered as a low-cost alternative to Fibre Channel. This technology can be used to enable location-independent file storage, transmission, and retrieval over LAN, WAN, or public Internet connections.
- Voice over Internet protocol (VoIP): It carries voice via data networks. Common VoIP protocols include Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP), designed to carry streaming audio and video. Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) is able to provide secure VoIP, including confidentiality, integrity, and secure authentication. SRTP uses AES for confidentiality and SHA-1 for integrity.
- Software-Defined Networking (SDN): It is a unique methodology for network operation, design, and management which is based on the theory that When an organization uses devices such as routers or switches in its network, it is usually forced to be in contact with vendors, specialists, and repairmen of the manufacturer of the device, which in turn limits the network’s flexibility to respond to changing conditions. SDN aims at separating the infrastructure layer (i.e., hardware and hardware-based settings) from the control layer (i.e., network services of data transmission management).